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MONTHLY BRIEFINGS - Sep 2017

September 2017 Briefing - Infectious Disease

Mon, Oct 2, 2017

Here are what the editors at HealthDay consider to be the most important developments in Infectious Disease for September 2017. This roundup includes the latest research news from journal articles, as well as the FDA approvals and regulatory changes that are the most likely to affect clinical practice.

Embezzlement Widespread in Medical Practices

FRIDAY, Sept. 29, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Embezzlement is widespread among medical practices, and knowing the warning signs is helpful for preventing it, according to an article published in Medical Economics.

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Eyebank Corneal Tissue Prep May Increase Infection Risk

FRIDAY, Sept. 29, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Donor rim cultures are more likely to have detectable Candida growth in endothelial keratoplasty-processed eyes than for other uses, according to a study published online Sept. 28 in JAMA Ophthalmology.

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Single Mutation Made Zika Virus More Virulent

FRIDAY, Sept. 29, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- A single mutation in the Zika virus made it more virulent, contributing to the increased incidence of microcephaly, according to a study published online Sept. 28 in Science.

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Vi-Tetanus Toxoid Conjugate Vaccine Can Prevent Typhoid

FRIDAY, Sept. 29, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- A Vi-tetanus toxoid conjugate vaccine is efficacious for prevention of typhoid fever, according to a study published online Sept. 28 in The Lancet.

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More Than 78 Percent of Health Care Personnel Receive Flu Shot

THURSDAY, Sept. 28, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- More than 78 percent of health care personnel (HCP) and 53.6 percent of pregnant women received influenza vaccination during the 2016-2017 influenza season, according to two studies published in the Sept. 29 issue of Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report.

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Immunochromatography Testing Differentiates Dengue, Zika

THURSDAY, Sept. 28, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- A rapid immunochromatography approach can differentiate dengue virus (DENV) and Zika virus (ZIKV) cases, according to a study published online Sept. 27 in Science Translational Medicine.

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Pneumococcal Vaccine for Only Half With Work-Related Asthma

WEDNESDAY, Sept. 27, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Adults with work-related asthma are more likely that those with non-work-related asthma to have received pneumococcal vaccination, although only 53.7 percent with work-related asthma have been vaccinated, according to a study published online Sept. 27 in the American Journal of Preventive Medicine.

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CDC: STDs Peak in 2016, Exceeding 2 Million Cases

WEDNESDAY, Sept. 27, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- In 2016, the number of cases of chlamydia, gonorrhea, and syphilis reported in the United States peaked, exceeding 2 million, according to a report published by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

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Notification Rates of New HIV Diagnoses Up in Older Adults

WEDNESDAY, Sept. 27, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Notification rates of new HIV diagnoses in older adults increased in 16 European countries from 2004 to 2015, according to a study published online Sept. 26 in The Lancet HIV.

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Working With a Scribe Improves Physician Satisfaction

WEDNESDAY, Sept. 27, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Working with a scribe significantly improves physicians' overall satisfaction, satisfaction with chart quality and accuracy, and charting efficiency, according to a study published online Sept. 11 in the Annals of Family Medicine.

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VA Models Provide Guidance for Care of Hepatitis C Infection

WEDNESDAY, Sept. 27, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- The U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) has developed models of care that can be used to reduce the overall burden of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, according to a study published online Sept. 25 in the Annals of Internal Medicine.

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Worker Contribution to Health Benefits Up in 2017

MONDAY, Sept. 25, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- In 2017, health benefits coverage remained stable, while workers faced considerable variation in costs, according to a report published online Sept. 19 in Health Affairs.

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AAP Offers Guidance for Infectious Disease in Sports

MONDAY, Sept. 25, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Participation in organized sports can potentially expose athletes to infectious diseases, with major risk factors including skin-to-skin contact, environmental exposures and physical trauma, and sharing of equipment, according to a clinical report published online Sept. 25 in Pediatrics.

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Ocular Histopathology Features Seen With Congenital Zika

MONDAY, Sept. 25, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Certain ocular histopathologic features are consistently found in fetuses with congenital Zika syndrome (CZS), according to a study published online Sept. 21 in JAMA Ophthalmology.

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Oral Beats Topical Isotretinoin for Treatment of Warts

THURSDAY, Sept. 21, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Oral isotretinoin shows a better and earlier response than topical isotretinoin for the treatment of plane warts, according to a small study published online Sept. 13 in the International Journal of Dermatology.

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Combination Strategy Could Be Key in HIV Prevention

THURSDAY, Sept. 21, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- A combination antibody strategy could be the key to halting the spread of HIV, according to results from two experimental studies. The research was published Sept. 20 in Science and Science Translational Medicine.

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Insurer Market Power Lowers Providers' Prices

WEDNESDAY, Sept. 20, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Insurers have the bargaining power to reduce provider prices in highly concentrated provider markets, according to a report published in the September issue of Health Affairs.

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HBcrAg Levels Tied to Progression to Cirrhosis in HBV Carriers

WEDNESDAY, Sept. 20, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- For hepatitis B virus (HBV) carriers, hepatitis B virus core-related antigen (HBcrAg) levels are associated with progression to cirrhosis, according to a study published online Sept. 15 in the Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology.

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Post-C-Section Cephalexin, Metronidazole Cuts SSI Rate

TUESDAY, Sept. 19, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- For obese women undergoing cesarean delivery, a postoperative 48-hour course of cephalexin and metronidazole reduces the rate of surgical site infection (SSI) within 30 days compared with placebo, according to a study published in the Sept. 19 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association.

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ACP Does Not Support Legalization of Assisted Suicide

TUESDAY, Sept. 19, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- The American College of Physicians (ACP) does not support the legalization of physician-assisted suicide, a practice that raises ethical, clinical, and other concerns, according to a position paper published online Sept. 19 in the Annals of Internal Medicine.

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Half of Repeat Antibiotics in Australia Extend Initial Rx

TUESDAY, Sept. 19, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Half of repeat antibiotic dispensings in Australia are used to extend the initial course, according to a study published online Sept. 11 in the Journal of Pharmacy Practice and Research.

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Expected Burden of Lung Cancer High for People Living With HIV

MONDAY, Sept. 18, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- For people living with HIV (PLWH), the expected burden of lung cancer is high, if smoking habits do not change, according to a study published online Sept. 18 in JAMA Internal Medicine.

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Drills Assess ER Response to Communicable Disease

MONDAY, Sept. 18, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- A series of mystery patient drills was used to assess the emergency department response to patients with communicable disease of public health concern in New York City; the results were published in the Sept. 15 issue of the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report.

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Physicians Tweeting About Drugs May Have Conflict of Interest

FRIDAY, Sept. 15, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Most physicians on Twitter with a financial conflict of interest (FCOI) and frequent tweets mention specific drugs for which they have a conflict, according to a study published in the September issue of The Lancet Haematology.

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Doctors Spend Almost Six Hours Per Day on EHR Tasks

FRIDAY, Sept. 15, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Physicians spend almost six hours per day in the electronic health record (EHR), with 4.5 hours spent during clinic hours and 1.4 hours spent after clinic hours, according to a study published in the September/October issue of the Annals of Family Medicine.

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EHR Data May Beat Claims Data in Assessing Sepsis Incidence

FRIDAY, Sept. 15, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Sepsis is present in 6 percent of adult hospitalizations, with no change in incidence from 2009 to 2014 based on electronic health record (EHR) data in contrast to claims-based analyses, according to a study published online Sept. 13 in the Journal of the American Medical Association.

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Conjunctivitis Prevalence Higher for Adult Women Than Men

FRIDAY, Sept. 15, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Adult women have a higher prevalence of conjunctivitis than men, and cases peak in the spring, according to a research letter published online Sept. 14 in JAMA Ophthalmology.

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'Science Spin' Found Prevalent in Biomedical Literature

FRIDAY, Sept. 15, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Spin in biomedical literature (also referred to as "science hype") is prevalent, with trials having the highest and greatest variability in the prevalence of spin, according to a review published online Sept. 11 in PLOS Biology.

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Assay Can ID M. tuberculosis Resistance Mutations

THURSDAY, Sept. 14, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- An automated molecular assay can detect Mycobacterium tuberculosis with resistance to drugs directly from sputum specimens, according to a study published in the Sept. 14 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine.

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Twenty-Seven Viruses Can Be Found in Human Semen

THURSDAY, Sept. 14, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Twenty-seven viruses can be found in human semen, according to a research letter published online Sept. 13 in the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Emerging Infectious Diseases.

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Some Aspects of Empathy Improve During Medical Training

WEDNESDAY, Sept. 13, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Certain aspects of empathy improve during medical student training, according to a study published online Sept. 7 in Medical Education.

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Are Physicians Obligated to Help on Planes?

TUESDAY, Sept. 12, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Does being a physician carry a moral obligation to respond to calls for medical assistance on airplanes? That is the topic of an article published in the Sept. 12 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association.

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'Modest at Best' Discriminatory Ability for CBC Test in Infants

MONDAY, Sept. 11, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Complete blood cell count parameters at commonly used or optimal thresholds do not offer high accuracy in identifying invasive bacterial infections (IBIs) in febrile infants (≤60 days of age), according to a study published online Sept. 11 in JAMA Pediatrics.

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CDC: Human Campylobacter Linked to Pet Store Puppies

MONDAY, Sept. 11, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Bacterial infections that have sickened 39 people in seven states have been linked to puppies sold through Petland, a national pet store chain, U.S. health officials say.

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In HIV, Tissue Factor-Expressing Monocytes Trigger Coagulation

MONDAY, Sept. 11, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- A specific subset of tissue factor (TF)-expressing monocytes persist after virological suppression and trigger the coagulation cascade by activating factor X in HIV, according to a study published online Aug. 30 in Science Translational Medicine.

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Zika Virus Preferentially Targets Glioblastoma Stem Cells

MONDAY, Sept. 11, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Zika virus (ZIKV) is an oncolytic virus that preferentially targets glioblastoma stem cells (GSCs), according to a study published online Sept. 5 in The Journal of Experimental Medicine.

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Vaccine-Type HPV Rates Down for Unvaccinated Young Women

FRIDAY, Sept. 8, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- From 2009-2010 to 2013-2014 there was a decrease in the prevalence of vaccine-type human papillomavirus (HPV) among unvaccinated young women aged 18 to 26 years, according to a study published online Sept. 7 in Obstetrics & Gynecology.

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Airway Mucin Concentrations May Help Predict Chronic Bronchitis

FRIDAY, Sept. 8, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Airway mucin concentrations may be a marker for chronic bronchitis, according to a study published online Sept. 6 in the New England Journal of Medicine.

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Zoonotic Chlamydia caviae Tied to Community-Acquired Pneumonia

FRIDAY, Sept. 8, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Three cases of community-acquired pneumonia involving Chlamydia caviae after exposure to ill guinea pigs have been described, according to a research letter published online Sept. 6 in the New England Journal of Medicine.

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Zika, Cobalamin C Deficiency Tied to Similar Retinal Problems

FRIDAY, Sept. 8, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Retinal maldevelopment associated with congenital Zika syndrome (CZS) is similar to the maldevelopment seen with cobalamin C (cblC) deficiency, according to a study published online Sept. 7 in JAMA Opthalmology.

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Third Dose of MMR Vaccine Could Help Curb Mumps Outbreaks

THURSDAY, Sept. 7, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- A third dose of the measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine lowers the risk of mumps during an outbreak, according to a study published online Sept. 6 in the New England Journal of Medicine.

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Traditional Flu Tests Not as Accurate as Newer Tests

THURSDAY, Sept. 7, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Digital immunoassays (DIAs) and rapid nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs) have higher sensitivities for detecting influenza than rapid influenza diagnostic tests (RIDTs), according to a review published online Sept. 4 in the Annals of Internal Medicine.

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Budget Cuts Threaten Research on Antimicrobial Resistance

THURSDAY, Sept. 7, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Proposed budget cuts could seriously hamper efforts to address antimicrobial resistance (AMR), according to an article published online Sept. 4 in the Annals of Internal Medicine.

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Intervention Beneficial for Acute Gastroenteritis Patients

THURSDAY, Sept. 7, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Implementation of a clinical pathway to improve care of acute gastroenteritis (AGE) patients is associated with a sustained reduction in intravenous (IV) fluid use and length of stay (LOS) in the pediatric emergency department (ED), according to a study published online Sept. 7 in Pediatrics.

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Increase in Medical Exemptions From Immunization in California

WEDNESDAY, Sept. 6, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- There was an increase in the number of children with medical exemptions (MEs) from immunization in California from 2015 to 2016 after elimination of personal belief exemptions (PBEs), according to a research letter published online Sept. 5 in the Journal of the American Medical Association.

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Care Process Use Linked to Reduced S. Aureus Mortality

WEDNESDAY, Sept. 6, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Use of evidence-based care processes in routine care for Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia is associated with reduced mortality, according to a study published online Sept. 5 in JAMA Internal Medicine.

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Docs Should Be Aware of Family Beliefs Regarding Nondisclosure

WEDNESDAY, Sept. 6, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Physicians should be aware of societal codes of conduct that affect family beliefs and behaviors regarding information disclosure to pediatric patients, according to a study published online Sept. 5 in JAMA Pediatrics.

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PrEP Adherence Decreases Over Time in Adolescent MSM

TUESDAY, Sept. 5, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- For adolescent men who have sex with men (MSM) participating in a 48-week HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) intervention, adherence decreases with quarterly visits, according to a study published online Sept. 5 in JAMA Pediatrics.

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Racial Variation in Antibiotic Prescribing for Viral ARTI

TUESDAY, Sept. 5, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Non-Hispanic black and Hispanic children are less likely than non-Hispanic white children to receive antibiotics for viral acute respiratory tract infection (ARTI) in the pediatric emergency department (PED), according to a study published online Sept. 5 in Pediatrics.

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Goshuyuto, Rabeprazole Shown to Treat Refractory H. pylori

TUESDAY, Sept. 5, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Refractory Helicobacter pylori (HP) infection can be successfully treated with goshuyuto and rabeprazole, according to a case report published online Aug. 28 in the Journal of Digestive Diseases.

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Child Flu Vaccination Down When Nasal Spray Unavailable

FRIDAY, Sept. 1, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Seasonal flu immunization rates among children appear to have dropped slightly after the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommended against the nasal spray version of the vaccine, according to a study published online recently in Vaccine.

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