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February 2018 Briefing - Infectious Disease

Thu, Mar 1, 2018

Here are what the editors at HealthDay consider to be the most important developments in Infectious Disease for February 2018. This roundup includes the latest research news from journal articles, as well as the FDA approvals and regulatory changes that are the most likely to affect clinical practice.

Early Studies Often Show Exaggerated Treatment Effect

TUESDAY, Feb. 27, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- Trials to evaluate drugs or devices used to treat chronic medical conditions that are published early in the chain of evidence often show an exaggerated treatment effect compared with subsequent trials, according to research published online Feb. 21 in the Mayo Clinical Proceedings.

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Understanding Rx Nonadherence Can Improve Adherence

MONDAY, Feb. 26, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- Understanding nonadherence in patients and encouraging a change in attitude toward patients and their medication can improve medication adherence, according to a report published by the American Medical Association (AMA).

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Recommendations for Optimizing Hidden Curriculum in Medicine

MONDAY, Feb. 26, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- In a position paper published online Feb. 27 in the Annals of Internal Medicine, the American College of Physicians (ACP) presents recommendations for optimizing clinical learning environments by fostering a positive hidden curriculum in medicine.

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Artificial Intelligence May Help Prevent Physician Burnout

FRIDAY, Feb. 23, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- Artificial intelligence (AI), in which computers can be trained to recognize patterns in large quantities of data, may be able to reduce physicians' burdens, saving them time and energy, according to a report published in Medical Economics.

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FDA Warns of Possible Heart Risks Linked to Clarithromycin

FRIDAY, Feb. 23, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- The antibiotic clarithromycin (brand name: Biaxin) may increase the long-term risk of heart problems and death in patients with heart disease, according to U.S. health officials.

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Hand Hygiene Program Tied to Lower Nursing Home Mortality

FRIDAY, Feb. 23, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- A multifaceted hand hygiene (HH) program may have a short-term impact on mortality in nursing homes (NHs), according to a study published in the February issue of the American Journal of Infection Control.

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GI Surgical Site Infections Higher in Low-Income Countries

WEDNESDAY, Feb. 14, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- The burden of surgical site infection (SSI) after gastrointestinal surgery is greater for countries with low income as classified by the U.N. Human Development Index (HDI), according to a study published online Feb. 13 in The Lancet Infectious Diseases.

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CDC: No Change in Percentage of Uninsured in U.S. From '16 to '17

THURSDAY, Feb. 22, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- The percentage of uninsured U.S. persons of all ages did not change significantly from 2016 to the first nine months of 2017, according to a report published online Feb. 22 by the National Center for Health Statistics.

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No Evidence Use of SEP-1 Bundle Ups Survival in Sepsis

WEDNESDAY, Feb. 21, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- For adults with sepsis, use of the Severe Sepsis and Septic Shock Early Management Bundle (SEP-1) or its hemodynamic interventions is not associated with improved survival, according to a review published online Feb. 19 in the Annals of Internal Medicine.

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Odds of ARDS Up After Cardiac Surgery During Flu Season

WEDNESDAY, Feb. 21, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- Undergoing cardiac surgery during the influenza season is associated with increased likelihood of development of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), according to a research letter published in the Feb. 21 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine.

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Maternal Vaccination Not Tied to Infant Hospitalization, Death

TUESDAY, Feb. 20, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- Maternal receipt of influenza and tetanus toxoid, reduced diphtheria toxoid, and acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccines is not associated with infant hospitalization or death in the first six months of life, according to a study published online Feb. 20 in Pediatrics.

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Burnout Found Prevalent Among Doctors in Single Health System

TUESDAY, Feb. 20, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- Burnout is prevalent among physicians, affecting over one-third of physicians in a single health system, and is associated with health care delivery, according to a research letter published online Feb. 19 in JAMA Internal Medicine.

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Influenza A(H3N2) Viruses Predominate 2017-2018 Season

FRIDAY, Feb. 16, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- Most influenza viruses identified in the 2017 to 2018 season are influenza A, with A(H3N2) viruses predominating, according to research published in the Feb. 16 issue of the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report.

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Patients Want Physicians to Have Greater Connectivity

THURSDAY, Feb. 15, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- Most patients want greater connectivity, online tools and text messaging, as well as more time with their physicians, according to a report published in Medical Economics.

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Patient Involvement May Promote Hand Washing in the Hospital

THURSDAY, Feb. 15, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- There is limited understanding of patients' and health care professionals' perceptions about appropriate patient involvement in promoting hand hygiene compliance in the hospital setting, according to a review published online Feb. 8 in the Journal of Clinical Nursing.

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Low Dose-Rate Far-UVC Light Can Inactivate Influenza Virus

WEDNESDAY, Feb. 14, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- Very low-dose 222-nm UVC ultraviolet light can inactivate more than 95 percent of aerosolized H1N1 influenza virus, according to a study published online Feb. 9 in Scientific Reports.

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Four Best Practices Outlined to Prevent Health Care Cyberattacks

TUESDAY, Feb. 13, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- Four best practices outlined that can help prevent health care cyberattacks, which increased from 2016 to 2017, according to a report published in Managed Healthcare Executive.

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Opioid Use Linked to Risk of Invasive Pneumococcal Disease

MONDAY, Feb. 12, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- Opioid use is associated with elevated risk of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD), especially for long-acting, high-potency, and high-dose opioids, according to a study published online Feb. 13 in the Annals of Internal Medicine.

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EHRs Not Sufficient to Ensure Success in Value-Based Care

MONDAY, Feb. 12, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- Electronic health records (EHRs) are not sufficient to ensure success in value-based care, according to an article published in Medical Economics.

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Top Consumer Concerns Reported About Physicians

FRIDAY, Feb. 9, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- Health care consumers have four major concerns regarding their physicians, according to a report published by Managed Healthcare Executive.

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Poll: Personal Beliefs Shouldn't Allow Doctors to Refuse to Treat

THURSDAY, Feb. 8, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- Most people do not believe that professionals including health care providers should be allowed to refuse to provide services based on their conscience or beliefs, according to a recent HealthDay/The Harris Poll.

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Mogamulizumab Cuts Infected Cells in HTLV-1 Myelopathy

WEDNESDAY, Feb. 7, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- For patients with human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1)-associated myelopathy-tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM-TSP), treatment with the humanized anti-CCR4 monoclonal antibody that targets infected cells, mogamulizumab, decreases the number of HTLV-1-infected cells, according to a study published in the Feb. 8 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine.

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HSV-1 Prevalence 47.8 Percent in 14- to 49-Year-Olds

WEDNESDAY, Feb. 7, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- The prevalence of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) and HSV-2 is 47.8 and 11.9 percent, respectively, for individuals aged 14 to 49 years, according to a February data brief published by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's National Center for Health Statistics.

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HPV Prevalence 4.9 Percent in Tonsil Tissue of Healthy Adults

WEDNESDAY, Feb. 7, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- The prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV) and of high-risk HPV type 16 or 18 is 4.9 and 3.9 percent, respectively, in the tonsil tissue of healthy adults, according to a study published online Jan. 25 in JAMA Otolaryngology-Head & Neck Surgery.

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Anti-Vaccination Attitudes Linked to Belief in Conspiracies

TUESDAY, Feb. 6, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- Those with anti-vaccination beliefs are more likely to believe in conspiracy theories and hold strong individualistic/hierarchical worldviews, according to a study published online Feb. 1 in Health Psychology.

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USPSTF Recommends Screening for Syphilis in Pregnancy

TUESDAY, Feb. 6, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) concludes that there is considerable net benefit to screening for syphilis infection in pregnant women. These findings form the basis of a draft recommendation statement, published Feb. 6 by the USPSTF.

Draft Evidence Review
Draft Recommendation Statement
Comment on Recommendation

2018 Immunization Schedule Issued for U.S. Children

TUESDAY, Feb. 6, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- The recommended childhood and adolescent immunization schedule for the United States has been issued for 2018 and published online Feb. 6 in Pediatrics.

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Sustained Viral Suppression Lower Among Blacks With HIV

TUESDAY, Feb. 6, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- A lower percentage of blacks than Hispanics and whites with HIV infection have sustained viral suppression, according to research published in the Feb. 2 issue of the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report.

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Low Rates of Abx Prophylaxis for Pediatric Sickle Cell

MONDAY, Feb. 5, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- Children with sickle cell anemia (SCA) have low rates of receiving ≥300 days of antibiotic prophylaxis, according to a study published online Feb. 5 in Pediatrics.

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2018 Immunization Schedule Issued for U.S. Adults

MONDAY, Feb. 5, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- The recommended immunization schedule for U.S. adults aged 19 years and older has been issued for 2018 and published online Feb. 6 in the Annals of Internal Medicine.

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Patient, Provider Characteristics Tied to Unnecessary Antibiotic Rx

MONDAY, Feb. 5, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- Patient, practice, and provider characteristics are associated with inappropriate antimicrobial prescribing in the outpatient setting, according to a study published online Jan. 30 in Infection Control & Hospital Epidemiology.

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Humanities Exposure Positively Impacts Medical Students

MONDAY, Feb. 5, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- Exposure to the humanities correlates with less burnout and higher levels of positive personal qualities among medical students, according to a study published online Jan. 29 in the Journal of General Internal Medicine.

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Zika Virus Infection Linked to Uteroplacental Pathology

MONDAY, Feb. 5, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- Zika virus (ZIKV) infection seems to be associated with uteroplacental pathology and may affect oxygen transport within the placenta in pregnant rhesus macaques, according to a study published online Jan. 17 in Nature Communications.

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Factors Identified That Impact Physicians IT Adoption

FRIDAY, Feb. 2, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- Physicians have considerable concerns about the efficacy and evidence base of health information technology (IT), according to a report published by the American Medical Association (AMA).

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Medicaid Expansion Cuts Out-of-Pocket Spending

THURSDAY, Feb. 1, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- States that expanded Medicaid cut the probability of non-elderly near-poor adults being uninsured and lowered average out-of-pocket spending, according to a study published online Jan. 24 in Health Affairs.

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Zika-Related Flaviviruses May Cause Congenital Infection

THURSDAY, Feb. 1, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- Emerging neurotropic flaviviruses related to Zika virus (ZIKV) may share ZIKV's capacity for transplacental transmission, according to a study published online Jan. 31 in Science Translational Medicine.

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